SMF - Just Installed!
Started by droqen, May 14, 2023, 06:54:31 AM
QuoteCommunitas is explicitly organized as a tree: it is first divided into four concentric major zones, . . . Each of them is further subdivided:the commercial centre is represented as a great cylindrical skyscraper, containing five layers. . .The university is divided into eight sectors. . .The third concentric ring is divided into neighbourhoods of 4000 people each. . . apartment blocks, each of these containing individual dwelling units.. . . the open country is divided into three segments: forest preserves, agriculture, and vacation lands.The overall organization is a tree.
Quote[In] today's social structure . . . If we ask a man[sic] to name his friends and then ask them in turn to name their friends, they will all name different people . . . There are virtually no closed groups of people in modern society. . . . the systems of friends and acquaintances form a semilattice, not a tree
Quote. . . the tree is comparable to the compulsive desire for neatness and order . . . The semilattice . . . is the structure of a complex fabric; it is the structure of living things, of great paintings and symphonies.It must be emphasized, lest the orderly mind shrink in horror . . . that the idea of overlap, ambiguity, multiplicity of aspect and the semilattice are not less orderly than the rigid tree, but more so. They represent a thicker, tougher, more subtle and more complex view of structure.
Quote. . . let us think abstractly for a moment. . . Instead of talking about the real sets of millions of real particles which occur in the city**, let us consider a simpler structure made of just half a dozen elements. Label these elements 1,2,3,4,5,6. . . . Suppose we now pick out certain [subsets]: , , , , , , .
Quote. . . the newsrack, the newspapers on it, the money going from people's pockets to the dime slot, the people who stop at the light and read papers, the traffic light, the electric impulses which make the lights changes, . . . the sidewalk which the people stand on . . .
Quote. . . since certain groups have been emphasized by the physical units of the physical structure, why are just these the most irrelevant ones?
QuoteWhenever we have a tree structure, it means that within this structure no piece of any unit is ever connected other units, except through the medium of that unit as a whole.. . . It is a little as though the members of a family were not free to make friends outside the family, except the family as a whole made a friendship.
Quote. . . the Columbia plan [and] the Stein plan . . . [suggest] a hierarchy of stronger and stronger closed social groups, ranging from the whole city down to the family, each formed by associational ties of different strength.
QuoteConsider the separation of pedestrians from moving vehicles, a tree concept . . . At a very crude level of thought this is obviously a good idea. Yet the urban taxi can function only because pedestrians and vehicles are not strictly separated.. . .Another favourite concept . . . is the separation of recreation from everything else. This has crystallized in our real cities in the form of playgrounds. . . . The playground, asphalted and fenced in, is . . . pictorial acknowledgement of the fact that 'play' exists as an isolated concept in our minds. It has nothing to do with the life of play itself.. . .Play itself, the play that children practise, goes on somewhere different every day. [indoors, then in a friendly gas station, then down by the river, then in a derelict building, then...] Each of these play activities, and the objects it requires, forms a system.
QuotePlay takes place in a thousand places it fills the interstices of adult life. As the play, children become full of their surroundings. How can children become full of their surroundings in a fenced enclosure! They cannot.
QuoteDoes a concert hall ask to be next to an opera house? . . . The only reason that [various performing arts have been gathered, in some cities, to form just one core] is that the concept of performing arts links them to one another. But . . . the idea of a single hierarchy of urban cores [does] not illuminate the relations between art and city life.[Tree structures are] born of the mania every . . . person has for putting things with the same name into the same basket.
Quote. . . why is it that so many designers have conceived cities as trees when the natural structure in every case is a semilattice? Have they done so deliberately. . . Or have they done it because they cannot help it, because they are trapped by a mental habit, perhaps even trapped by the way the mind works . . .
QuoteI shall try to convince you that it is for this second reason . . . because designers, limited as they must be by the capacity of the mind to form intuitively accessible structures, cannot achieve the complexity of the semilattice in a single mental act.